So I am a just put this on fullscreen I am a condensed matter physicist by training is there any are there any physicists in a room oh yeah there’s a bunch of is this your sofas in a room you might be familiar with this diagram over here it’s see an energy diagram of the band theory of solids and.
Basically what the building blocks of quanta of computing currently are transistors which are based on the on semiconductor physics and transistors can be either on or off and what that means is that you apply an electric field to change the properties of the semiconductor to become conducting so this is basically the.
Same as a light switch it’s it’s on or off and what that that means is if you look at a CPU central processing unit and let’s let’s look on the inside here is that on this chip.
There is billions of these transistors that all carry currents that flow through these circuits and do computations so in the 80s there were some physicists who thought hey quantum actually nature itself isn’t classical it’s quantum so a lot of calculations we do on computers these days simulate nature simulate physics and we are now at the.
Point that we actually have to start simulating quantum mechanics even transistors themselves are now so small that they are at the scale of quantum mechanics so we actually are now to optimize our CPUs we are simulating quantum physics and to.
Do that better why don’t we actually create a computer our computational model that takes that is inherently quantum mechanical and takes these effects into account so hence the idea for a qubit or quantum bit was born you might be familiar.
With this schematic over here on the left which is the Bohr model of the atom qubits were actually inspired by the atom itself so an atom can be in a different like the electrons in an atom can be either in the ground state or in the excited state in for example this.
Simple atom over here in more complex atoms there’s more energy levels but the idea for quantum bit is that we engineer an artificial atom an artificial atom that has only two levels the ground or the excited state and at Righetti we engineer these artificial atoms is that we are a.
Full-stack a quantum computing company so you might think that because atoms are really.
Small that artificial atoms are also going to be very small so you might be surprised to see that actually our artificial atoms are quite large they’re about a millimeter in diameter here they are microwave circuits so they’re patterned aluminum on top of silicon so there are silicon chips there is however some secret sauce here to actually unlock these quantum mechanical properties which is there’s a nanostructure here called.
A Josephson Junction which is about 200 nanometers in size.
And we cool these down to absolute zero temperatures almost 10 million Kelvin to unlock these these quantum mechanical States and control them these chips are fabricated in our fabrication facility in Fremont and cooled down and characterized.
In our lab in Berkeley what you see in the left is a dilution refrigerator which are which is the inside of these cans over here that you see in the picture on the right which cools.