How To Make Beautiful Eye Catching Lavender Paper Flower | Lavender Diy-paper Crafts

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Chão háháhá é isso ae certo não pode ser ninguém o céu é o povo como está na ponte isso é a deixa do show chora chora ah ah ah fui bem nem que se.

Vai financeiro em love we o windows que tinha um boi na luta sem gol que voa efe co o santos e serv steel exporta chão o seu.

Choro ah ah ah ah em seu show a aas a jóia 2006 em sua visão o fã é algo bom para o sol ora em santana nosso mudam a.
Amizade chega a doença capricho chora háháhá a xuxa.

Já a a ponto o capô ninguém como estava por justiça o sabichão chão chora.

Chunky Necklace (diy)

Alright so this tutorial is about making chunky necklaces in bracelet all right so you have your authors you can use your clear stretch cord which I’m going to use or some people like to use wire so they can put clasp in the crimps and things of that nature on it but I’m not gonna use that I’m using the.

Stretch cord so the first thing I’ll be doing is using a stretch Carter first but for some may like to use.

These beaters from any book Hobby Lobby Michaels and it looks like this it has hole in there just string it up through this area here so you’ll put your string in and you pull it through this hole here like.

That and so when it comes to your home chunky necklace you just have to figure out what paddle you want to use mine is inspired by Mickey Mouse so basically all you do.
You grab your beads you figure.

Out what pattern you want to bow and do it go from there string it through like that so I’m thinking okay to read so Nick and so what you doing one site you want to do to the other side so right now I’m flowing like this and I got a list right one in there I can get it through the hole these holes.

Are pretty big and four is the beef go you can order them offline or you can go to your own craft store your neighborhood craft store.

And you know just get it going like that no biggie so once you figure out how are you gonna you know cut and slice this thing you all off to a great.

Start so I’m thinking another one.

Of these another several one what could be better do you do yeah it’s cute and you know Mickey Mouse have on those little yellow pants cuz you just never know you want to just do the same thing cool so what I’m thinking I’m gonna stop here move on probably put some of these on the end I may put it on in there now let’s get this thing stringed up.

How To Build A Rustic Bookshelf – Storage & Organization

What’s up guys and welcome back today I’m working on a rustic bookshelf slash storage unit a little bit different from the modern design as usual this one is going up for a donation and I didn’t want to make this one so taste specific and with that out of the way I designed this piece to be broken down and.

Reassembled before I take you in a shop and bring out the power tools here’s a.

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Shells which I then cut down to size when using construction lumber these are never accurate so I measured and took the side of the smallest shelf then I ripped them down to the same depth the two standing structures are made from select pine which I then marked and cut at the same time to build the two frames I’m gonna use wooden dowels next I’m gonna find the center of the smaller pieces and drill a hole there and with that hole I can then use a dowel Center to mark the adjacent piece and.

Just in case I’m off-center I’m gonna mark both pieces so I know exactly where they go now I can drill a hole into adjacent piece that I used.

A dowel Center to mark and if everything was done right it all should come together perfectly I repeated that.

I was complete once I double-checked everything I can now glue these up and with the glue off setup I can now remove the clamps and move on to the next step so.

Now I’m gonna work on the cross support which is something I’ve never done before and I don’t know how others do it but for.

Me I’m just gonna lay these pieces down and then place a mark right on top of them then I head over to the miter saw and cut those angles I then double check to see how this fared out and it looked pretty good so I use this to mark the other.

Piece I wanted to get the intersecting part as accurate as possible so I used some scrap pieces of wood and this really helped what they aligned me for the.

I use one of the cut off ends to hold that piece in place so it’s not moving I mark the line which established the bottom part of the support next I.

Took a clamp to hold the pieces together then I mark them I also label the pieces top.

And bottom this is more of a mental note to help me keep track of everything as a way to fit these together I’m gonna use a half lap joint I’m gonna mark the halfway point on both of the support and because I’ll label the part and now know that the top of this one need to be cut out in the bottom of the other one needs to be cut out so I’ll use.

A few hand tools to remove this section and then I repeat the same thing for the other one if you carefully take your time the pieces should come together just fine now since this piece is meant to come apart I’m.

Gonna use bolts to hold it together and not glue them if you don’t plan to take it.

Apart you can totally glue this section since I remove half of the material that mean I have to modify the threaded insert now so that it works in this setup now this part looks pretty good so let’s address the four hands now each end of the cross support will have a threaded insert going right into the endgrain now personally I think this is good enough to hold a.

Structure together but there’s no load on it it’s just acting as a holding piece if you have any concern you can always put wood glue down in the hole before you put.

In if you don’t get to 30 insert in.

You can always sand off the end so that everything fits nicely I modified a couple of.

The connecting bolts and I think this looks worked for this type of design since I missed the other one here’s a.

Threaded insert go into the end grain I repeated the same process for the remaining joins so right about this point I can sand.

Everything down now I don’t want to go through a ton of sandpaper nor do I have a lot of time at the moment so I pull it out the planer to remove a few layers off the rough lumber now my goal is not to flatten the board all I’m doing is just taking off layers which you can accomplish the same thing by using a belt sander or an orbital sander there is no escape in a.

Sanding process I just wanted to minimize the work because there’s many places that the painter would not be able to get light besides I ended up sending everything three times it.

Took about four to five minutes I use 120 grit first 220 followed up by 320 grit eventually.

I’m gonna donate this to charity and since I don’t know others tastes I wanted to keep it.

A bit neutral and I went with a light walnut Danish oil.

I’m a big fan of Danish oil because it soaks into the wood and the dry time is really fast so you can also add a second coat if you want to but mainly I just leave one coat because that’s usually a good enough tone for me for the frame I went with an espresso which is really dark I didn’t want to go with paint because paint normally add another.

Layer onto the work surface and I didn’t want that to have any kind.

Of problem with alignment and also I didn’t want a paint coming off when you need to remove the cross support the espresso was also quite simple to apply just brush it on and wipe it off I let the pieces set.

Up overnight it’s not twenty-four hours yet but everything seems to be dry first I’m going to assemble everything together then I’m going to apply the clear coat my first intention was a spray to clear coat on here I even took the can out and for some reason I still managed to grab the can of white bon Polly I mean that would have been fun I just think.

That I didn’t give this enough drying time and I noticed right away because the stain was bleeding onto the rack.

Before I let this one go I’m gonna have to restain a few pieces but for now I’m just gonna add that clear coat on here and move on to attach each gels I’m.

Gonna use for small brackets I attached a bottom shelf first and I spaced at.

Four inches from the bottom I also made a really quick jig that not only spaces these perfectly apart but also Center to bracket the brackets also make it really easy to assemble and disassemble even though each bracket come with its own screws I’m going to use longer screws to attach the shelves after all this project came out pretty.

Nice obviously there’s some things that I still need to address.

But for now this one is done now a great way to stay.

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The video description alright guys that’s it for this one if you like more information on this build I have free plans coming in a day or two so I’ll be sure to check the video description for that in the meantime if you have any questions or suggestions drop those in the comment section hit that thumbs up if you enjoyed and if you’re not already be sure to subscribe to the channel and bring that bill so that.

You get notified when I upload a video I’m going with DIY creators and I’ll see you in the next one.

Ultimate Beginner’s Guide To 3d Printing

You’ve probably heard of 3D printing. It was supposed to be the new “Industrial Revolution.” People would be able to fabricate anything in their own homes! An upgrade for your car could be printed in a matter of minutes. It hasn’t taken over the world just yet, but I’m here to talk you through everything you need to know to get started.

This guide is available to download as a free PDF. Download Ultimate Beginner’s Guide to 3D Printing now. Feel free to copy and share this with your friends and family.

Before getting started, let’s clear one thing up. It will not be plug and play! No machine is without issues, or requires no maintenance or work. It’s not always the easiest hobby, but it is very enjoyable. If you are still interested, then read on. If you want all the benefits of 3D printing (without any of the hassle), look into online printing services 3D Hubs and Shapeways.

RepRap Prusa I3 3D Printer

What Is 3D Printing?

3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing. Objects are built in small layers, stacked on top of each other one at a time. It can be quite a slow process, but it does have many benefits. For comparison, a subtractive manufacturing process starts with a solid block of material, and removes bits until the final product is born. Some examples of this are marble sculpting and CNC milling (that’s computer numerical control). 3D printers are technically a type of CNC machine, but they are rarely referred to as such — it can get confusing!

3D Printed Part on Bed

3D printing has been around for a long time. Ever since the 1980s, designers and engineers have had access to commercial 3D printers — these often cost tens of thousands of dollars, and sometimes mandate expensive support contracts for routine maintenance. The recent explosion of “hobby” 3D printing has occurred due to a patent expiry. 3D printing techniques will continue to grow as more patents expire in the near future. Nowadays you can buy a 3D printer for your home for around $1,000 or less.

Take a look at this model of the Eiffel Tower. Notice how it emerges as the bed moves down. This is fairly representative of what 3D printer models look like.

Terminology

Before digging too deep into 3D printing, here is some common jargon you may encounter along the way.

Filament — A material (often plastic) manufactured into a long strand (like a cable). These are used by some types of 3D printers to manufacture objects.

Extruder — The part of the machine where the material is melted.

Nozzle — A small hole from which melted filament is pushed (“extruded”) out of.

3D Printer Nozzle and Hotend

Bed — The surface on which a 3D printed object is produced.

3D Printer Bed

Heated Bed — A print surface that is heated to provide better adhesion.

Stepper Motor — A precise and powerful motor used to move the various parts of a printer.

Stepper Motor
RepRap — An open source 3D printer movement.

G-code — Instructions for a machine describing every movement required to manufacture a part. Not specific to 3D printing.

Slicer — A piece of software used to convert 3D models to G-code.

Axis — A reference line for movement. A 3 axis machine can move in X (left to right), Y (front to back), and Z (up and down).

Carriage — A moving part that the extruder sits on.

3D Printer Carriage

What Can Be Made

Nearly anything! 3D printed parts won’t be replacing traditional manufacturing techniques for mass production anytime soon — no printer is fast enough, or capable of producing the required quality. Where 3D printing really shines is in the prototyping and home production markets. Say the dial on your washing machine breaks, and the manufacturer quotes your $30 for a tiny piece of plastic plus shipping. Why not design your own replacement and be up and running within a day, at a fraction of the cost?

Take a look at these ways you can make use of a 3D printer at home for some more inspiration.

3D Printed Gameboy Case

There’s a reason the Ford Motor Company have 3D printed over 500,000 prototype car parts. Having the ability to modify a component and then print it again is a huge time saver — even if that part takes five hours to machine, it’s still a very quick process.

3D Printed Motor Bracket

There are fun things too, like these six games you can print at home.

Types of Printer

Now that you know what 3D printing is, let’s look at the different types of machine. There are two types of printing process: Fused Deposition Modelling and Stereolithography. These have their own strengths and weaknesses, so here are the basics.

Fused Deposition Modelling

Fused Deposition Modelling, or FDM, is the simplest and most popular method of printing. The printing material is pushed through a hot tube. This tube is pushed around to draw the required shape, just like piping a message onto a cake. The temperatures vary depending on the material, however 200C/392F is about average for consumer machines printing in plastic.

3D Printed Bracket

Popular models:

This is currently the most popular printing process. Prices range from $200 up to several thousand dollars. There are a myriad of different manufacturers and models for FDM machines. They print plastic in layers, each building upon the previous, lower layer. Machines start at the bottom and build upwards. This can mean complex shapes or objects without a flat axis on which to start may be difficult to produce.

Models often have “lines” where each layer has been built. This can be smoothed afterwards if required.

3D Printed Brick Wall Part

Approximate cost per 1kg/2.2lbs of material: $25.

Stereolithography

Stereolithography (SLA) is very different to FDM. This starts with a container of special liquid plastic (known as photopolymer resin). An ultraviolet laser is directed at the top of the resin, causing it to solidify (not the whole lot, just a small layer). Just like FDM, each layer is “drawn” and cured successively. These machines work from the top down, pulling the object out from the liquid.

Formlabs Form 2 3D Printer

Models produced using SLA are extremely smooth, with an incredibly high resolution. They are faster to print than FDM machines, however they are less common, more expensive, and rely on expensive resin.

Popular models:

Approximate cost per 1kg/2.2lbs of material: $100.

Prices vary per model, although the average is a lot higher than FDM machines, approximately $1,500.

This guide will focus on FDM machines, due to their relative ease of use, and popularity.

Aside from the manufacturing process, there is one other critical specification to know: the coordinate system. This is how each printer moves the hot end around the bed. The two main variations are known as cartesian and delta. There are other systems (like polar), as well as several unique designs, although it is best to stick to a popular system. Using a coordinate system that several thousand other people have used makes it much easier to troubleshoot any potential problems.

Cartesian

Much like a traditional inkjet or laser printer, cartesian machines are fairly straightforward. They have an X-axis, Y-axis, and a Z-axis, with one or more stepper motors to drive each one. They will have a square or rectangular bed, and it would not be uncommon to have the entire bed move in one axis. Here’s what a cartesian printer looks like:

RepRap Prusa I3 3D Printer

Delta

Delta printers also utilize X, Y, and Z axis, however there is one important difference. Delta machines suspend the extruder from three arms in a triangle arrangement. They will nearly always have a circular print bed that does not move. These machines were designed to print parts fast!

Delta 3D Printer

They are perfect for tall, narrow models. They are only slightly more expensive and complex than traditional cartesian machines, so they represent an excellent alternative choice.

Printing Materials

Just as there are hundreds of different printer styles, sizes, and prices, there are dozens of printing materials (filament for FDM machines). The main two you should focus on right now are ABS and PLA. There are other materials gaining popularity (Nylon for high strength, and wood-based for different textures), however these are not always as simple to use.

Blue Filament Reel

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable plastic derived from renewable resources, such as sugarcane or corn starch. As a result, printing with it gives off a semi-sweet smell. It is one of the easiest materials to print with, while still maintaining high strength. PLA can be “stringy,” making it prone to clogging. Ensure you follow any and all manufacturer recommendations.

ABS, or Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, is the stuff Lego bricks are made from. Derived from fossil fuels, it is strong, and hard wearing. It is not biodegradable, and printing with it can give off a strong “burning plastic” smell. While it can be challenging to print with, it is still one of the more popular material choices. A heated bed is often required to prevent warping and poor bed adhesion. Parts printed with ABS can be sanded and smoothed quite easily.

Both PLA and ABS can be purchased in a wide variety of colors. PLA can be found in partially translucent colors if required.

Multiple Filament Reels

FDM machines use plastic in filament form. Often provided on reels or spools of 500g (1.1lbs) to 1kg (2.2 lbs).

Choosing a Machine

When making a decision, it’s important to choose the right machine for you and your needs. Are you buying the cheapest model on the market? Are you buying the most expensive one? What’s the customer support like? Is there an active support community, of which users may have solved common problems?

Decide upon the features that are the most important to you. Reliability should be pretty high on your list, as should quality. There are machines that can print very fast, and others that can print huge objects. While not every machine can do everything very well, some models can do a reasonable job at many things

Choosing a printer should not be done on a whim, or the spur of the moment. I have owned three 3D printers, and deeply regret purchasing my first one, for reasons outlined below.

One important factor to consider is maintenance. Most machines use a belt driven X and Y axis, with a lead screw driven Z axis. Not all machines operate like this, but it is a fairly common design choice. Belts need to be calibrated and tightened, so if there is no way to do so, maybe that model is not the best choice for you.

3D Printer Z-Axis Bracket

My first machine was reasonable, however, over time the belts worked loose, and regular maintenance and calibration was needed (as is the case with all printers). When I went to tighten the belts, there was no way to do so, and the manufacturers had ceased trading. Not only that, but as there was no community around this machine, there was not a lot of information about this particular design.

3D Printer X-Axis Belt

This leads to another important factor: community. With many of the popular models, huge online communities exist, often with solutions to common problem. This information is invaluable to improving the quality of your prints, and maintaining your printer.

The final important feature to consider is cost of running. As shown above, filament is reasonably cheap to purchase. Many different manufacturers produce a whole range of materials and colors, for nearly every use and budget imaginable. A few select manufacturers have attempted to introduce proprietary filament “cartridges,” which lock you into only purchasing filament from that company. This is great at making money for the company, but a terrible deal for consumers. I recommend you stay away from any machine that forces you to use a proprietary filament design.

RepRap

The RepRap project is an open source 3D printer movement. Many of the machines use 3D printed components, and the rest are readily available (usually in hardware stores). The RepRap community is huge, and many problems have been resolved thanks to this community.

A RepRap is one of the best machines you can purchase. Not only is there a massive support community, but there are many tried and tested designs. Machines can be bought in kit form, or fully assembled. Hundreds of retailers sell their own take on popular kits, and replacement parts as well as upgrades can be cheaply purchased from Amazon or Ebay.

Original RepRap 3D Printer

Many kits are sold at a very low price. While some of these may not be bad in themselves, poorly assembled components or cost cutting in the wrong places (such as the power supply), can lead to trouble. 3D printer fires are rare, they do happen, and while any 3D printer has the potential to cause a fire, this risk can be reduced by purchasing from a reputable retailer, and choosing a machine that has good reviews on the whole.

RepRap 3D Printer

If you are going to purchase a RepRap, I recommend the Prusa I3 MK2 from Prusa Research. There is a vast number of users, with hundreds of modifications and improvements available. This particular printer is available in kit or pre-built form, and is highly calibrated. Prusa Research designed the Prusa models themselves, and while this is not one of the cheapest machines around, the design and configuration in this machine really will save you a lot of trouble later on.

RepRap Prusa I3

First Print

Now that you have chosen a machine, and it’s been delivered and setup, it’s time to start printing! I’m afraid buying the machine is only the start of the process. Most machines run off an SD card, or your computer. You could install Octopi, a Raspberry Pi Distribution written for 3D printing, but that’s a bit advanced for today. Learn the basics first, then you will know everything you need to configure an internet controlled printer.

Regardless of how your machine is controlled, every machine gets instructions in the same way. It’s a several-step process:

  1. Design or obtain 3D model.
  2. Convert 3D model to STL format.
  3. Use a “Slicer” to convert STL model to G-code.
  4. Print model using G-code.

3D Models

The first thing you need is a model to print! Thingiverse is one of the more popular websites for sharing models, with most models already available as STL files. You will want to start with a test cube or calibration model to ensure everything is configured correctly. If you are feeling adventurous, you could design your own models. Many programs can do this. Google Sketchup is a popular free tool, and it’s easy to learn:

Google Sketchup Cube

Make sure you read our introduction to Sketchup first. Blender is another excellent tool, and one that is slightly more geared towards artwork, rather than product design. Checkout our compilation of fantastic tutorials for Blender beginners.

If you’re like me, and not so good at art, then have no fear! OpenSCAD is another free tool that lets you design models using code! It’s simple to use, I designed this hollowed out cube with only five lines of code:

$fn = 100;  difference() {      cube(size = [10,10,10]);      translate([10,10,10]) sphere(r = 6.5);  }

OpenSCAD Hollow Cube

Convert to STL Format

Now that you have a model to print, it needs to be converted into the STL format. This stands for STereoLithography and it is a fairly universal 3D model format for 3D printing. Many tools can save files in this format. Nearly all Thingiverse files can be downloaded as STL. If you are using Google Sketchup, you will need to download the sketchup-stl extension to be able to export STL files.

Using a Slicer

You may have heard of a slicer. These pieces of software convert your STL file into a set of instructions called G-code. G-code has been around for a very long time and is used on industrial machines as well as 3D printers. G-code will often be specific to your machine.

3D Printer Slicer Cura

There are many different slicers available. They mostly function the same, and when you’re just starting out with simple models, it does not really matter which slicer you choose. The manufacturer of your machine may recommend one, and even better if they provide a default or getting started configuration file!

Some popular choices are:

There are many settings in your choice of slicer. Here are some common ones and what they do.

Layer Height

This determines how thick each layer is. A lower number results in more layers, and a higher quality print (at the expense of speed). A good tradeoff is 0.15 or 0.2mm. Very high quality prints may use a 0.05mm layer height, but this will be very slow! It’s often advisable to use a slightly thicker height for the first layer, as this helps things stick better.

Here is a comparison between different layer heights. From left to right goes fine to coarse:

3D Printer Layer Height Comparison

Shell Thickness

This is how thick the outer walls should be. You will want this to be a decent size, otherwise the fill may show through. Anywhere between two and four wall thicknesses would be good, depending on your model.

Retraction

Retraction helps to keep prints neat by slightly pulling the filament back into the nozzle when not printing (ie, when moving across a gap in the model). It can sometimes be difficult to fine tune, so stick to the default or manufacturers recommended setting.

Bottom/Top Thickness

3D printed objects are rarely 100 percent solid on the inside. This is done to save plastic, and increase printing speed. The top and bottoms layers are solid, so you can specify how thick these should be. Six layers is a reasonable number. Go too low and you may notice the semi-hollow fill showing through or bubbling on the surface.

Fill Density

Expressed as a percentage, this is how solid the interior should be. Model designers will usually specify this figure, as some parts may require a higher strength fill. A value of 20 percent to 30 percent will usually be sufficient.

Fill Pattern

A fill pattern is used for the semi hollow interior. Hexagons or a honeycomb design is fairly common, but as this won’t usually be seen, stick to your printer/slicer default for now. Here you can see a honeycomb fill pattern on this cross section of a print:

Honeycomb Fill Pattern

Print Speed

Print speed is a very important setting. Printing too fast will nearly always result in a lower quality print. Printing slowly will improve the quality (but it may not always be practical). This should be set to a middle ground between speed and quality. Stick to your slicer default. Print speeds of 70mm/second would be fairly fast. A speed of 40mm/s would be quite slow, but very high quality. This video highlights the differences in printing speeds:

Printing Temperature

Temperature is another setting that has a big impact on quality. Unfortunately, it varies based on a lot of factors. Maybe your thermistor (digital temperature reader) is only accurate to +/- 5 degrees. Different materials have different printing temperatures, and even different colors and manufacturers of the same filament can vary in ideal temperature. Start with your slicer defaults (approximately 210C for PLA, 230C for ABS). If the temperature is too hot, models may look squished, or possibly even burnt. Reduce the temperature 5 degrees at a time until a good level is found. You may have to do this for every different filament you use.

Bed Temperature

If your machine has a heated bed (not all of them do), then set it to the slicer default. Heated beds are required for printing in ABS, but are not always needed for PLA.

Heated beds keep the bottom of your prints warm (usually about 70C). Without a heated bed, you may find the bottom of a large part cools, and becomes unstuck. This is called warping, and if the part becomes 100 percent unstuck, the print will usually be ruined. Think of a traditional printer or photocopier: how would the ink be in the correct place if you wobble the paper around?

Support Type

Support is another setting you may not initially need. If you are printing a complex model, maybe a figure or curved object with overhangs greater than 90C, a support structure is needed to hold up the parts that will not print otherwise. Think of it like scaffolding for 3D printed parts. This often leaves minor marks on prints that need cleaning off. Support is not needed for simple shapes and calibration parts. In the image below you can see the support structure as a concertina of thin plastic.

3D Printer Support Material

Platform Adhesion Type

There are two main adhesion types here. The first is a raft and is exactly as it sounds. This prints a small raft first, and then prints your model on that. This reduces problems with an uneven print surface. Rafts were widely used when hobby 3D printing first started, but now that machine quality has improved dramatically, they are not often needed.

Brims are still used regularly. These are like a skirt or outer layers on your model. They increase the surface area, and can help to reduce warping. They are usually only one or two layers high.

Filament Diameter

Filament is mainly sold in two diameters: 1.75mm and 3.00mm, with 1.75mm becoming increasingly common as it is quicker to heat up. Your printer will be designed for one size only. It’s not possible to mix different sizes without changing the hotend and extruder. Nearly all filament sold has some variation in its diameter; higher quality filament has less variation. Filament with a wildly varying diameter may work inconsistently, and possibly cause clogging.

This filament diameter setting allows you to tweak the exact diameter of your filament. Measure your filament diameter in three places across one meter and average the results. Enter this average diameter.

Flow Percentage

Flow percentage is used to adjust how much plastic will come out. This will be 100 percent by default, but you can increase or decrease this as required to reduce over extrusion, or fix under extrusion.

Nozzle Size

Most machines come with a 0.4mm nozzle size. A smaller nozzle will increase print quality, but at the expense of speed. 0.3mm nozzles are becoming more common. It does not really matter what size nozzle you are using, just be sure to enter the correct size here.

If you are not sure what you should start with, many slicers come with default templates for common machines. If you own a popular model, a quick Google search for “Printer model slicer settings” may yield many results. This is where your machine research may have paid off. A printer with very good support, or a large community may mean you can download someone else’s settings, or maybe your manufacturer even supplied the settings — some of them do!

This video shows off a very high quality print. Similar to having a smaller layer height, a smaller nozzle can help to improve quality (but it’s not the only way).

G-code

Your slicer will generate G-code. This is a set of instructions for your machine to print the model. This is often specific to you, and contains your settings at the time. The final step is to print your model. You need to upload the G-code to your printer. This is often done directly over USB, although many printers will run G-code from an SD card.

I like to keep my SD cards neat and tidy. I create folders for different projects, and prefix my G-Code files with an estimated print time, along with any specific print notes. Make sure you delete any G-code that produces undesirable results. Most slicers will provide an estimated print time, along with filament usage and rough cost.

3D Printer Estimated Print Time

Warping

Hopefully by this point, you will have a working 3D printer, and a good knowledge of how it operates. One of the most challenging issues is that of warping. Even on perfect machines it still happens. The main cause of warping is bed adhesion. Sometimes a corner comes unstuck from the bed, and “curls”, ruining an otherwise perfect print. ABS can be particularly troublesome for warping.

3D Printer Warped Print

Some common fixes:

  • Reduce the first layer height. How far away is the nozzle from the bed?
  • Turn on the heated bed. The part may be cooling at the bottom too rapidly.
  • Add a brim to your model.
  • Try adding mouse ears to your model.

3D Printer Warped Print

Sometimes, warping happens even when you do everything right. Some of the most difficult parts to print are those that are large and flat. These can warp even with perfect adhesion and settings. What happens here is a result of contraction. The top of the print cools at a different rate to the bottom. This is enough to be a problem on certain prints. A heated bed helps a lot with this, or you can use a hair dryer to heat and then slightly bend your part after the fact.

Finding Help

It can be very frustrating when you don’t know why a print is failing. Here are some useful resources to help you:

Why not consider a DIY project for your new printer? Checkout our DIY shortcut buttons or an electronic D20 Die — two projects that use 3D printed parts!

You should now know (nearly) everything you need to get started 3D printing! What printer are you using? What common problems do you encounter? Let us know in the comments below!

Image Credits: FabrikaSimf/Shutterstock

How To Add A Reset Switch To Your Raspberry Pi

Your Raspberry Pi has frozen. Perhaps a new component has failed, or the system has ground to a halt processing some bad code. Either way, you now have to unplug and reconnect your Pi’s power supply as manually shutting down isn’t possible.

Removing and replacing the USB power cable isn’t ideal, and it is certainly putting undue wear and tear on your Raspberry Pi, particularly the power port itself. What the system really needs is a reset switch, but sadly none was included.

Fitting A Reset Switch To Your Raspberry Pi

It is relatively simple to add a reset switch. Three methods are available to you, each suited to a particular skill level. For the beginners, an inline power switch on the micro-USB cable powers your Pi is the easiest.

muo-diy-resetswitch-jumper-pi

Are you more of an expert? If the USB reset button seems simplistic, using a jumper (a small plastic square housing some metal connectors) commonly found on motherboards or the back of PC hard disk is also an option.

For those of you happy to wield a soldering iron, however, you can also fit your own pins to the P6 header on your Raspberry Pi, and then connect a PC-style reset switch.

Let’s look at all three options in more detail.

Add An Inline Power Switch To Your Raspberry Pi

Quite clearly the simple option, adding a inline power switch to your Raspberry Pi saves you the hassle of playing with the GPIO header or even soldering your own pins to the board.

All you need to do with this device is connect it to the micro USB connector on your Raspberry Pi, and then connect the mains electric to the power switch. This make it a universal option across all models (such as the new Raspberry Pi Model A+), where using the GPIO or adding pins to the P6 header isn’t an option.

Head to Pi-Supply.com for one of these inline devices which retail for around $20 plus shipping.

Jumper + GPIO = Reset Your Pi!

With a motherboard jumper you can request the Raspberry Pi commences an orderly shutdown, the equivalent to entering

sudo shutdown –h now

with the help of a script.

Identify the GPIO pin array. On the Model A and B (Rev 2) this is found on the opposite edge of the board from the power connector, and comprises 26 pins. On the Model A+ and B+ you will find a 40 pin array occupying almost the entire long edge above the Raspberry Pi Model B+ printed text.

muo-diy-resetswitch-jumper

In each array, GPIO 3 – pins 5 and 6 – can be used to initiate shutdown. Copy this script from github and execute it on your Pi (if you’re using SSH, which you should be, copy the script from your browser and then right-click in the SSH window to copy). Make it executable with

sudo chmod 755 raspi_gpio_actions.sh then sudo ./raspi_gpio_actions.sh

With the jumper attached, the script polls the GND (ground) pin to check if anything is connected. Once the pins are connected by the jumper, the script will run and shutdown the Pi safely.

To save you running the script each time you boot your Pi, open /etc/crontab in nano and add this line:

@reboot        root    /home/user/scripts/raspi_gpio_actions.sh

Press CTRL+X to save and exit. This will regularly poll GPIO3 and when the device detects the jumper on the pins it will automatically shut down.

When complete, remember to remove the jumper. You might leave it attached to just one of the pins, so as not to lose it. If you don’t remove it, the Raspberry Pi will not boot correctly.

Be aware that this method is no good for situations when the Pi has crashed or frozen. It’s essentially an automated way of running the safe shutdown command, so there’s a strong chance that if the device is frozen, the script won’t run.

Give Your Raspberry Pi A PC-Style Soft Reset Switch

Adding a couple of pins to the P6 header (labelled Run on the Model B+) using a soldering iron and some fine-gauge solder designed for electronic work allows you to add a PC-style reset button to your Pi. This requires a momentary switch, which is essentially an instantaneous on/off action.

muo-diy-resetswitch-components

All of these components, and the connecting wire, can be purchased online or from electronics retailers. You may find that the pins can only be bought in bulk, however, leaving you with more than you need.

In this situation, and in light of the requirement for a PC-style reset button, it’s worth checking any old computers you have. The pins and reset switch seen here came from an old motherboard and a recently-disused tower. Alternatively, you might purchase a small board-mounted button for a wire-free solution.

Only the Model B Rev 2 and Model B+ Raspberry Pi have the P6/Run header. To find it on your Model B Rev 2, look for the HDMI port, where you should find two small holes a few millimetres apart.

muo-diy-resetswitch-connected

On the B+, the header next to the display ribbon connector, near to the microSD slot, and to the right of the printed “© Raspberry Pi 2014”.

By soldering the pins to the Run header cleanly, you create a connector for the reset button. Once connected and with your Pi powered up, ensure that no action is taking place to test the button.

This video explains in full:

It should work fine. Better still, when your Pi is powered off, the reset button can be used to switch it on!

Time To Reset Your Raspberry Pi

We’ve shown you three different methods for resetting a Raspberry Pi. The inline power switch from PiSupply.com gives you the hard reset option, enabling you to switch off and back on quickly. Meanwhile, adding the jumper to the GPIO pin on compatible devices enables you to automate an ordered shutdown.

Finally, the DIY reset switch option provides a soft reset whenever your Raspberry Pi has locked up.

Be aware, however, that an inline power switch is purely for emergencies, not for everyday rebooting, for which you should use the GUI or bash command for shutting down safely.

Do you use a reset switch on your Pi? Considering trying any of these options? Let us know, and ask any questions, in the comments box below!

10 Great Raspberry Pi Books Full Of Project Ideas

If there’s one thing you should know about the Raspberry Pi, it’s that the device is a flexible little computer that can be used as the hub for all manner of projects.

So it should come as no surprise that a mini industry has sprung up around it, with companies offering accessories to enhance and extend the device to help you get the most out of the device.

Here at MakeUseOf we’ve brought you some particularly useful Raspberry Pi projects over the years, but if you want to go really hardcore, you’ll need some more in-depth reading. Here are ten Raspberry Pi books that are bursting with project ideas, ready for you to get started with straightaway.

Raspberry Pi Books for Beginners

If you’re brand new to the Raspberry Pi and want something that you can use to get the device setup and an OS installed quickly, then check MakeUseOf’s own guide to Getting Started with Raspberry Pi, which I wrote and which is also available from Amazon.

At 271 pages, the Raspberry Pi User Guide by the Raspberry Pi Foundation’s own Eben Upton (who chatted with us back in 2013) and Gareth Halfacree is a great starting point and also provides information for connecting the Pi to other hardware (such as Arduino) and some basic Python and Scratch projects. Note that the currently available 3rd edition covers the Raspberry Pi Model B+.

Raspberry Pi 2: The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide! by Andrew Johansen brings everything you need to know about the super-powerful Raspberry Pi 2 together in an easy to read guide. While not chock full of projects like space missions and converting old printers into wireless devices, this guide does includes tips for managing desktop tasks with the Pi 2.

Ideal for owners of the Raspberry Pi 2 as well as A+ and B+ models, Raspberry Pi 2: A Beginners Guide by James K Sargent features 20 projects for Pi beginners. Among these are tutorials explaining how to build your first media center project with XBMC, and a look at how to use the GPIO for some hardware hacking.

Raspberry Pi Books for Kids

You probably know that the Raspberry Pi was developed in part to provide an affordable tool to help children get started with computer science. As Eben Upton told me:

“Like the thing with kids, if we thought we were forcing kids to learn to program, we wouldn’t get anywhere.  What I think we have realised with Raspberry Pi is if you give people the tools, they’ll do it. We don’t need to push the program, give them tools a chance to build a house in Minecraft, give them a chance to make the cat run round in Scratch. Giving people the chance to do physical computing, that’s been a real surprise to me.”

So no one should be surprised to see such a great collection of Raspberry Pi books available for kids and teens.

From Daniel Bates comes Raspberry Pi Projects for Kids, a Scratch and Python-centric book that encourages parents and children to embark on a “coding adventure… creating cool and exciting games and applications on the Raspberry Pi.” Want to build a custom version of Angry Birds, or even an interactive map? This is the Raspberry Pi project book for you!

Updated to a Raspberry Pi 2-friendly 2nd edition, Carrie Anne Philbin’s Adventures in Raspberry Pi is a collection of 9 projects aimed at 11-15 year olds, helping youngsters to do everything from creating a Raspberry Pi jukebox to programming with Turtle Graphics and Python.

Philbin’s aim is to explain the fundamentals of computing using the Raspberry Pi, and the book naturally includes a section on getting started.

From the “For Dummies” series, Raspberry Pi For Kids offers 13 fun projects, and will have you creating art in Tux Paint, designing games in Scratch, using HTML to build a Pi-hosted website and understanding the GPIO.

There’s also a section on the ever popular Minecraft, which as you may know has a Raspberry Pi-dedicated release.

If your resident Raspberry Pi tinkerer fancies him or herself as a bit of an “evil genius”, Donald Norris’ Raspberry Pi Projects for the Evil Genius might just be the best gift you can buy them – aside from the Raspberry Pi itself!

This book features a collection of 13 diverse projects, from MP3 player to earthquake detector, and even provides steps to turn your Raspberry Pi into a weather station.

Experts & Beyond: Raspberry Pi Advanced Project Books

Once you’ve got familiar with the Raspberry Pi and Python, you should be able to get your hands dirty building the various projects in the books above. But what happens next?

It’s time to enhance your learning…

Programming the Raspberry Pi by Simon Monk is a good opportunity to do just that. Updated for Raspberry Pi 2 owners, this book provides comprehensive details for using the IDLE Python editor, teaching you how to use strings, lists, functions, modules, classes and methods to unlock the power of your Raspberry Pi.

If you’ve been building hobby projects using online tutorials, this book will help you take your skills to the next level.

Again from Monk is the Raspberry Pi Cookbook, in which the writer compiles an amazing collection of over 60 Raspberry Pi projects for advanced hobbyists. Clearly written, you can use this title to get to grips with the GPIO and begin connecting switches, keypads and other digital inputs, and among the projects inside you’ll find several that feature a Raspberry Pi and an Arduino.

Finally we have Harry Colvin’s Raspberry Pi 2: Advanced Tips and Tricks, a Kindle-only title that brings a collection of unusual, projects together. Forget time lapse cameras and network monitors, this book demonstrates how you can turn your Raspberry Pi into a router, set it up as an email notifier and even sense temperature. Focus is also given to MATLAB support, which can be used by computer students to extend the functionality of the device and acquire data from sensors, and Simulink, which aids in the design of applications.

Bonus Publication: A Raspberry Pi Bookazine

Available from Imagine Publishing, Practical Raspberry Pi Projects is a magazine format book (known in the trade as a “bookazine”) with over 60 projects inside, covering everything from building a Google Glass-style Pi Glass to building a Pi-powered synthesizer.

Practical Raspberry Pi Projects is available online for $15 (£9.99 in the UK, where it is also available on newstands).

With such a large choice of Raspberry Pi books to choose from, there is no way that you will ever be short of project ideas for your little computer again! If you’d like to recommend a book we missed, please tell us in the comments.

5 Simple DIY Hacks for Filmmaking on a Budget

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You’re making a film, but your budget is low. You can get great quality video from the family DSLR as a video camera


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We’ve put together a list of 10 stunning videos shot using a digital SLR camera that you an use as a point of inspiration for shooting your own videos.
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, or even a smartphone camera (the iPhone can make particularly good movies


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, as can Microsoft’s high-end Lumia devices


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), but putting together well lit and smooth motion shots can be tough without costly accessories.

But budget doesn’t have to mean no movie. With a bit of invention, lighting issues can be resolved and Steadicam-style camera work can be introduced, for very little or even no money, using tools and equipment that you may already have in your office, shed or workspace.

No Steadicam? No Problem!

One of the big problems facing amateur and low budget film makers is the price of a Steadicam. The genuine article will set you back $320 on Amazon, while low budget alternatives can cost anything from $20 to $130.

Now, you might find that making your own Steadicam is something you’re interested in doing, and with the right equipment this is achievable. Online DIY sites are chocked full of home-built Steadicam alternatives, but this is one of the best we’ve seen:

DIY Steadicam, Without the DIY Skills?

Just suppose you’re completely useless at DIY. You may have the ability to screw and unscrew things, but when it comes to putting materials together, you prefer to pass. Well, this might just be the solution to your Steadicam dreams.

Known as the Merricam (named after its inventor, Will Merrick) this Steadicam alternative utilizes the physical properties of a standard camera tripod, and requires you to remove a single screw. Note that this may not work so well with cheaper, lightweight tripods, but is perfect if you have a standard tripod to the same or similar design.

(And if you are completely bereft of DIY skills, you can always learn them on YouTube


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.)

Hello, Dolly

Smooth motion is an absolute must-have for amateur movie making, and at the same time very difficult to achieve. While Steadicam hacks are one way of achieving this, you might also want to track and zoom slowly, something achieved in film production with a dolly, a small platform on wheels upon which the camera is mounted.

Typically these devices have track along which they are pushed. But given how much smaller scale your movie project might be, you could construct a DIY dolly using parts you have in your shed, or that are easily affordable.

Built using an old skateboard and two lengths of aluminum, this DIY dolly gives great results.

Drive by Shooting

If some wheels and a DIY track aren’t quite big enough, why not employ a car?

No, really.

The truth is, shooting from a car can give great results, not just as a dolly substitute for tracking and zoom shots, but also for elevated camera work. You might mount your camera on the side of the car (although this can be expensive) or you might prefer to wind down a window or sit in the boot to get the right shot.

As you can see from the video, you can shoot footage inside a car safely, and use the vehicle to record some impressive stunt shots too, with zero expense on stuntmen!

If this isn’t an option, you can also manage in-car video shooting using just a smartphone mount. Like this…

Ahem.

Let There Be Light

Lighting is almost always a problem for amateur and budget moviemakers, but if you’ve got the right skills or personnel, you can take advantage of affordable equipment and build your own lighting solutions.

These might be as simple as adding some extra bounce to your flash, or building an entire lighting rig.

DIY lighting solutions don’t have to be a stop-gap, either – they can create results that might otherwise prove very difficult or expensive. Here’s a bonus example, which demonstrates how to achieve subtle, scary lighting with an IKEA trash can.

Doesn’t that look great? Repurposing IKEA furniture is great for DIY projects – take a look at our budget standing desk built from IKEA tables


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.

Keep Up With the Film Making Hacks

These videos are just the tip of the iceberg of DIY film making tips that you can achieve with little or no budget. But where can you find more?

A good place to start is Indiewire, the first stop for independent filmmakers online, which has a section dedicated to DIY filmmakers. Indeed, there is very little reason to avoid this site as it is full of useful articles and features.

Several online video channels are worth following too, such as DigitalRev TV who produced the first lighting video above, and the Vimeo Video School. For a more in depth discussion on DIY video techniques, the DIY Filmmaker’s Podcast is also a good choice.

Meanwhile if you have a Lynda.com subscription, you can take your movie making further with some courses compiled and hosted by professionals.

What are your favorite DIY film making tricks? Perhaps you have already produced a stunning movie on a low or zero budget that you would like to share? Tell us about it in the comments.